Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC)

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (alpha-GPC) is a choline-containing phospholipid that can be used to augment the body and brain choline pool. In this role it serves as a precursor for both acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Alpha-GPC and citicoline (i.e., CDP-choline) are considered the nootropic forms of choline, with both forms able to increase brain choline levels, act as building blocks for acetylcholine, and support choline-dependent neurotransmission [1–4]. However, of the two, alpha-GPC contains a higher proportion of choline, so a lower dose of alpha-GPC gives greater choline support than a similar dose of citicoline [5–7]. This means that by weight alpha-GPC is the more efficient choline precursor. Following an oral dose, alpha-GPC metabolizes into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate. The choline can be used for acetylcholine synthesis and neurotransmission [3,8–14]. Acetylcholine is central to brain neurotransmission; it’s also used in both the fight or flight and rest and relax parts of the autonomic nervous system; and it is a signaling molecule for activating muscles. Because alpha-GPC is a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, it plays a supportive role in a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, concentration, mental focus, and memory formation and recall [15]. Alpha-GPC also supports aspects of muscle performance, and is involved in maintaining organs and tissues. And, because alpha-GPC can be readily metabolized into phosphatidylcholine, it can be used to support the structure and function of cell membranes. Alpha-GPC is found in low amounts in a variety of foods [16] and in breast milk [17,18].* 


TOP BENEFITS OF ALPHA-GPC

Supports cognitive function*

Supports exercise performance* 


NEUROHACKER’S ALPHA-GPC SOURCING

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC) is a source of choline; it is able to influence both systemic and brain concentrations of choline.

Alpha-GPC is derived from soy.

Qualia uses an Alpha-GPC that is sourced to be non-GMO, gluten-free, and vegan.


ALPHA-GPC FORMULATING PRINCIPLES AND RATIONALE

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC) is by weight one of the best sources of choline. While alpha-GPC is often treated as if it’s dose-dependent (i.e., a higher dose is better) and doses of 1200 mg/day have been used in some clinical studies, Qualia believes the evidence suggests a threshold response (see Qualia Dosing Principles) when alpha-GPC is given to healthy people. This means that more might not be better under all circumstances. As an example, in a study of healthy college-aged men, while the higher dose (500 mg/day) of alpha-GPC did a better job increasing free choline levels, the lower dose (250 mg/day) produced a better peak muscle force response [19]. In general, Qualia’s experience with alpha-GPC (as well as citicoline) indicates that when used as part of comprehensive nootropic formulations, a more modest serving is often sufficient. Alpha-GPC is a useful choline source in liquids because of its taste and solubility. In general, the best time to take alpha-GPC is early in the day.*


ALPHA-GPC KEY MECHANISMS

Augments choline pool*

Alpha-GPC is part of the CDP-choline (or Kennedy) pathway, which has a central role in choline homeostasis* [13,14]

Supports plasma choline levels* [20]

Precursor for phosphatidylcholine synthesis* [3]

Precursor for acetylcholine synthesis* [2,3]

 

Supports brain function*

Supports cognitive function* [2,3,7,15,21–23]

Supports acetylcholine signaling* [2,3,24–26]

Supports dopamine signaling* [1,27]

Supports serotonin signaling* [27]

Supports GABA signaling* [28]

Supports phospholipid synthesis* [9,29]

Supports growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland* [10,20,30]

Counters some age-related brain microstructural changes* [31–34]

Supports neuroprotective functions* [2,3]


Promotes exercise performance*

Supports isometric force production* [35]

Supports maximum power and velocity in jump movements* [19]


*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


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