Collective Insights Blog

 How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

In 1958, Jack Preiss and Philip Handler published a scientific paper describing how NAD+ was made from niacin in three steps.(1) This pathway was later named the Preiss-Handler pathway after the co-discoverers. It describes the enzyme steps needed to convert niacin into the NAD+ molecule.

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How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

The salvage pathway is used to produce NAD+ from nicotinamide molecules. Whether the source of the nicotinamide is vitamin B3 (as niacinamide), newer nicotinamides (e.g., nicotinamide riboside [NR], nicotinamide mononucleotide [NMN]), or molecules in food that get broken down during digestion into nicotinamide, the salvage pathway turns them into NAD+ in our tissues.

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How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

Most organisms have several alternatives for producing the NAD+ molecule. In humans, there are three major NAD+ biosynthesis pathways: the De Novo Pathway, starting from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan; the Preiss-Handler pathway, using niacin (nicotinic acid); and the Salvage Pathway from niacinamide (nicotinamide). In this article, we’ll be covering the De Novo Pathway.

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Qualia Nootropics: The Complex Intelligence Behind Their Formulation

Qualia Nootropics: The Complex Intelligence Behind Their Formulation

Qualia nootropics were designed to promote a sustained improvement across the whole pallet of objective capacities and subjective states that contribute to optimized, creative, productive flow states. This goal required factoring many creative-productive capacities simultaneously. 

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Dosing Principles

Dosing Principles

Choosing the optimal dose for a given ingredient in our formulations is a critical and nuanced topic, so we want to share a bit about the principles that help guide our decisions at Qualia. Our principles derive from complexity science—the science of complex adaptive systems—and guide how we factor research and approach formulation and dosing. They take into consideration scientific evidence on the change in effect caused by differing levels of exposure (i.e., the dose-response relationship), but they do this in a way that honors complexity.

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